D that CaM/CaMKII cascade is involved in LTA-stimulated JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 activation (Figure 5B), consistent with the idea that MMP-9 induction by IL-1b is mediated through the CaM/CaMKII system inastrocytes [35]. For astrocytes, we show for the first time that LTA stimulates intracellular Ca 2+ increases from TG-sensitive Ca2+ stores (e.g. ER), which participate in LTA-induced CaMKII phosphorylation