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Pathway is mediated through Ca 2+ responses (Figure 3F), consistent with that activation of JNK/c-Jun by IL-1b is mediated through increased intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytes [35]. These results suggest that Ca2+ release from the TG-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores may play a critical role in regulation of LTA-induced proMMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells. Calmodulin (CaM) is a key downstream compo